The framework of the WTO as a space to defend the interests of the State:

bilateralism versus multilateralism in the cases of agricultural subsidies, intellectual property and the response to the pandemic


  • Laura Victoria García-Matamoros
  • Walter Arévalo-Ramírez


World Trade Organization, multilateral negotiations, bilateralism.


The article analyzes the role of multilateral negotiation blocks within the WTO and the different coalitions of States in negotiation scenarios, as well as the reactions to them by the European Union and the United States. The article studies the tension between bilateral and multilateral interests in the Doha Round and other recent negotiating scenarios. In the first place, this phenomenon is analyzed in the field of agriculture, the subsidies inherent to the activity, the position of the most developed States, the limitations in negotiation events by the blocks that emerged as opposed to those. Secondly, an analysis of the phenomenon in the field of intellectual property is carried out, the restriction that States have suffered to defend and protect their initial claims in the matter and other recent cases such as the discussions on patents during the coronavirus pandemic. COVID-19.